**FULLER**

**Important Notes:**

NOT RECOMMENDED FOR CARTOGRAPHIC USE. Use only to import data that might have been saved in this system and then transform to a new coordinate system. This projection only works on small scale datasets that are contained in one of the grid faces of the projection.

**Information:**

R. Buckminster Fuller's Dymaxion Projection is a method of projecting the spherical earth onto a twenty-sided polyhedron known as an icosahedron. This icosahedron is then unfolded in such a way that the major land masses will appear whole, without the map borders breaking them apart. For more information about the map and the work of Buckminster Fuller, visit the Buckminster Fuller Institute at www.bfi.org. The Fuller Projection Map design is a trademark of the Buckminster Fuller Institute © 1938, 1967, 1992. All rights reserved. www.bfi.org.

The Fuller projection has no parameters.

**Notes:**

Only a spherical form of this projection is used. The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid specified in the coordinate system datum definition is used as sphere radius.

**MILITARY GRID REFERENCE SYSTEM (DEPRECATED)**

**Important Notes:**

NOT FOR CARTOGRAPHIC USE. Use only to import legacy data in this system and then transform to a new coordinate system. This projection only works on small scale datasets that are contained in one of the grid cells of the system.

**Information:**

This projection has been deprecated and should not be used. It is provided for backwards compatibility only. MGRS conversions are now performed using an instance of the UTM projection.

The "Military Grid Reference System" projection has no parameters.

**NEW ZEALAND MAP GRID**

The New Zealand Map Grid (NZMG) is a projection that is used to convert latitudes and longitudes to easting and northing coordinates used for most mapping of New Zealand. The projection is unique to New Zealand. It was designed by Dr W. I. Reilly (1973) to minimize the scale error over the land area of the country.

**Parameters:**** **

central_meridian |
Longitude of the NZMG origin |

false_easting |
False easting |

false_northing |
False northing |

latitude_of_origin |
Latitude of the NZMG origin |

**Usage:**Large-scale maps of New Zealand.

**TILTED PERSPECTIVE**

The Tilted Perspective projection represents a view of the Earth from space in which the view is from anywhere other than a point precisely facing the centre of the Earth.

It is a modified azimuthal projection that is neither conformal nor equal area. The central meridian and a particular parallel (if shown) are straight lines. Other meridians and parallels are usually arcs of circles or ellipses, but some may be parabolas or hyperbolas. If the point of perspective is above the sphere, less than one hemisphere may be shown.

**Parameters:**** **

azimuth |
Azimuth |

central_meridian |
Longitude of origin |

false_easting |
False easting |

false_northing |
False northing |

height |
Height |

latitude_of_origin |
Latitude of origin of the projection |

tilt |
Tilt |

**Usage:**Used to generate pictorial views of the Earth resembling those seen from space.

**Notes:**

Should not be used on non-hemispherical area — requires crop before transforming. Only a spherical form of this projection is used. The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid (sphere) is used for forward and inverse projection from grid to geodetic coordinates

**TWO-POINT FIT**

**Important Notes:**

NOT RECOMMENDED FOR CARTOGRAPHIC USE. Use only to import legacy data that might have been saved in this system and then transform to a new coordinate system. This projection is an approximation and can only be valid for very large scale maps (surveying).

**Information:**

The Two-Point Fit Projection is used when a local grid needs to be converted to another coordinate system. From two known points (with both easting/northing and lat/long values for each point), the remainder of the grid values can be derived and used for coordinate conversion purposes.

This projection takes two points (i.e. a line) from one coordinate system (lat/long for example) and THE SAME two points from a second coordinate system (e.g. local survey coordinates) and matches them. You must have TWO points that you know what the coordinates are in BOTH systems.

**Example Situation:**

For example: A surveyor ties into 2 benchmarks (BM1 = 45N, 84W and BM2 = 45 00 01N, 84W). She starts at BM1 and calls it 10000/10000(Northing/Easting) and traverses to BM2 and gets some N/E value. You now have two points (BM1 & BM2) that have Lat/Long coordinates and Local coordinates. That is, you now have the endpoints and orientation of a common line in two coordinate systems

You need to define a new coordinate system using those two points as the references. Any scaling, rotation, etc. issues are taken care of because you have just linked two points (i.e. defined a line length and orientation in space) that are common to both coordinate systems..

**Parameters:**

east1 |
Easting of the 1st point |

east2 |
Easting of the 2nd point |

north1 |
Northing of the 1st point |

north2 |
Northing of the 2nd point |

standard_latitude1 |
Standard latitude of 1st point |

standard_latitude2 |
Standard latitude of 2nd point |

standard_longitude1 |
Standard longitude of 1st point |

standard_longitude2 |
Standard longitude of 2nd point |

**Usage:**Very large scale survey data.

**V AND H**

**Important Notes:**

NOT FOR CARTOGRAPHIC USE. **This coordinate system is not supported for vector data conversions. **Only applicable in MAPublisher with the MAP Point Plotter function

**Information:**

The Bell Labs V & H coordinate system, developed in 1957 by J. K. Donald, was invented to more easily calculate distances between wire centres (pre-defined nodes) with published V&H coordinates using a slide rule. The V & H (Vertical and Horizontal) coordinate system is useful for the utility for which it was developed (i.e. distance-based telephone rate computations), but is not nearly as accurate at geodetic coordinates.

The coordinate system is based on the Donald two-point elliptical projection (uses Clarke 1866 ellipsoid). The most valuable feature of the projection is the balance of error (+0.3% scale error east-west along the Mexican and Canadian borders; -0.3% scale error along the approximate centre of the United States.) The unit of measurement in the V & H coordinate system is defined as SQRT .1 mile (~1669.68 ft). These units are to be used only in the V & H coordinate system.

Reference: Peter H. Dana upplied J.K. Donald’s 1957 Bell Labs paper.

The "V and H" Projection has no Parameters.

**VAN DER GRINTEN**

This projection is neither conformal nor equal-area, but shows the globe enclosed in a circle. This projection is exclusively used for world maps. The central meridian and Equator are straight lines, with scale true along the equator only.

**Parameters:**** **

central_meridian |
Longitude of the centre of the projection |

false_easting |
False easting |

false_northing |
False northing |

spherical_radius |
Latitude of origin of the projection |

If the **spherical_radius **parameter is set to a value greater than zero, then it will be used as the radius of the sphere. If this parameter is set to a value less than or equal to zero, then the Semi-Major radius of the Ellipsoid will be used as the radius of the sphere.

**Usage:**

World maps. Formerly the standard world map projection of the National Geographic Society

**Notes:**

Only a spherical form of this projection is used (see parameters).

**VAN DER GRINTEN IV**

This projection is neither conformal nor equal-area, but shows the globe enclosed in an apple shape. This projection is rarely used. The central meridian and Equator are straight lines, with scale true along the equator only.

**Parameters:**** **

central_meridian |
Longitude of the centre of the projection |

false_easting |
False easting |

false_northing |
False northing |

**Usage:**World maps

**Notes:**

Only a spherical form of this projection is used. The semi-major axis of the ellipsoid specified in the coordinate system datum definition is used as sphere radius.

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