ALBERS EQUALAREA CONIC
The Albers EqualArea Conic projection is a map projection in which the parallels are unequally spaced arcs of concentric circles spaced closer to each other near the north and south edges of the map. The meridians are equally spaced and intersect the parallels at right angles.
Parameters:
central_meridian 
Longitude of the central meridian 
false_easting 
False easting 
false_northing 
False northing 
latitude_of_origin 
Latitude of origin of the projection 
standard_parallel1 
Latitude of southern standard parallel 
standard_parallel2 
Latitude of northern standard parallel 
Usage:
Equalarea maps of regions with a predominantly eastwest expanse, such as the United States, and valid for small extents or countries but not continents. It is used exclusively by the USGS for sectional maps of all 50 states.
BELGIUM 72
The Belgium 72 Projection is a special case of the Lambert Conformal Conic (2parallel) projection.
Parameters:
central_meridian 
Longitude of the central meridian 
false_easting 
False easting 
false_northing 
False northing 
latitude_of_origin 
Latitude of origin of the projection 
standard_parallel1 
Latitude of southern standard parallel 
standard_parallel2 
Latitude of northern standard parallel 
Usage:
Maps of Belgium.
BIPOLAR OBLIQUE CONIC CONFORMAL
This conformal projection was constructed specifically for mapping North and South America. It is composed of two oblique adaptations of the Lambert Conformal Conic projection. The juncture of the two conic projections consists of a great circle arc cutting through Central America from southwest
to northeast. There is a slight mathematical discontinuity along this arc, which is resolved by an adjustment that leaves a small intermediate area slightly nonconformal. The Earth is treated as a sphere by this projection, due to the relatively small scale of the map.
The Bipolar Oblique Conformal Conic projection has no parameters, as the poles and parallels used by the conic projections are set to specific values.
Usage:
Maps of North and South America together
BONNE
The Bonne projection is pseudoconical and equalarea. The central meridian is a straight line. Other meridians are complex curves. Parallels are concentric circular arcs, but the poles are points. Scale is true along the central meridian and along all parallels. There is no distortion along the central meridian and along the standard parallel.
Parameters:
central_meridian 
Longitude of the central meridian 
false_easting 
False easting 
false_northing 
False northing 
latitude_of_origin 
Latitude of standard parallel 
Usage:
Atlas maps of continents and topographic mapping in some countries.
Notes:
In this projection, a world map has a heart shape.
EQUIDISTANT CONIC
The Equidistant Conic is the simplest kind of conic projection. It is the projection most likely to be found in atlases of small countries, with its equally spaced straight meridians and equally spaced circular parallels.
Parameters:
central_meridian 
Longitude of the central meridian 
false_easting 
False easting 
false_northing 
False northing 
latitude_of_origin 
Latitude of origin of the projection 
standard_parallel1 
Latitude of southern standard parallel 
standard_parallel2 
Latitude of northern standard parallel 
Usage:
Atlases of small countries.
GUAM 27
Important Notes:
NOT FOR CARTOGRAPHIC USE. Use only to import legacy data that might have been saved in this system and then transform to a new coordinate system
Information:
The State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) is not a projection; rather it is a system for specifying positions of geodetic stations using plane rectangular coordinates. This coordinate system divides all fifty states of the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands into over 120 numbered sections, referred to as zones. Each zone has an assigned code number that defines the projection parameters for the region.
There are four possible projections for SPCS. The geometric direction of each state determines the projection utilized. For states that are longer in the eastwest direction, the Lambert Conformal Conic is used. States which are longer in the northsouth direction use the Transverse Mercator projection. The panhandle of Alaska, which has the sole distinction of lying at an angle, garners the use of the Oblique Mercator projection, while Guam uses a Polyconic projection
The formulae for these calculations are based on Publication 624, "State Plane Coordinates by Automatic Data Processing", U.S. Department of Commerce 1968. These projections should only be used for data that has been computed using this method. For all other state plane calculations use Exact Methods. The parameters for these coordinate systems are defined in Publication 624. For further information contact the U.S. Department of Commerce.
The Guam27 projection does not require any parameters.
IMW POLYCONIC
The IMW Polyconic projection is a modified Polyconic projection devised as a basis for the 1:1,000,000scale International Map of the World (IMW) series. The IMW Polyconic projection differs from the ordinary Polyconic in two principle ways. All meridians are straight and two meridians are made true to scale.
Parameters:
central_meridian 
Longitude of the central meridian 
false_easting 
False easting 
false_northing 
False northing 
latitude_of_origin 
Latitude of origin of the projection 
standard_parallel1 
Latitude of southern standard parallel 
standard_parallel2 
Latitude of northern standard parallel 
Usage:
Very large scale maps are part of the IMW series.
Notes:
Only valid about 810 degree from central meridian and latitude of origin.
KROVAK
Important Notes:
NOT FOR RECOMMENDED CARTOGRAPHIC USE. This projection uses Westing and Southing instead of the regular Easting and Northing value; maps created in this system in Adobe Illustrator would look flipped in north/south and east/west directions. Use this projection only to import source data in this system and then transform to a different choice, or for export.
Information:
The Krovak Projection was created and used in former Czechoslovakia in the early part of the 20th century. It is an oblique version of the Lambert Conformal Conic projections with a pseudo standard parallel that intersects the centerline of the projection at a defined azimuth. The projection accurately preserves scale and area along the pseudo standard parallel. It is primarily used in the Czech Republic.
Parameters:
azimuth 
Azimuth 
central_meridian 
Origin longitude (centerline) 
false_easting 
False easting 
false_northing 
False northing 
latitude_of_origin 
Origin latitude 
latitude_of_true_scale 
Latitude of true scale 
scale_factor 
Scale reduction factor at the centre of the projection 
x_scale 
Scale reduction on the X axis (default is 1) 
xy_plane_rotation 
XY plane rotation (optional, default is 0). 
y_scale 
Scale reduction on the Y axis (default is 1) 
Usage:
Maps of Czech Republic or Slovakia.
LAMBERT CONFORMAL CONIC (2 PARALLELS)
The Lambert Conformal Conic (2 parallel) projection is a map projection in which the scale is true along two standard parallels, and the true shape of small areas is preserved. Parallels are unequally spaced arcs of concentric circles spaced closer to each other near the centre of the map. The meridians are equally spaced and intersect the parallels at right angles. The scale is true along two standard parallels.
Parameters:
central_meridian 
Longitude of the central meridian 
false_easting 
False easting 
false_northing 
False northing 
latitude_of_origin 
Latitude of origin of the projection 
standard_parallel1 
Latitude of southern standard parallel 
standard_parallel2 
Latitude of northern standard parallel 
Usage:
Widely used in atlases, in aeronautical charts, and in plane coordinate systems in surveying. It is also used in the US State Plane Coordinate System for states with large eastwest extents.
LAMBERT TANGENT
The Lambert Tangent or Lambert Conformal Conic (1 parallel) projection is a map projection in which the scale is true along a single standard parallel, and the true shape of small areas is preserved. Parallels are unequally spaced arcs of concentric circles spaced closer to each other near the centre of the map. The meridians are equally spaced and intersect the parallels at right angles.
Parameters:
central_meridian 
Longitude of the centre of the projection 
false_easting 
False easting 
false_northing 
False northing 
latitude_of_origin 
Latitude of origin of the projection 
scale_factor 
Scale reduction factor at the centre of the projection 
Usage:
Used extensively in France.
LAMBERT CONFORMAL CONIC EXTENDED
This is a variation of the standard Lambert Conformal Conic projection that is provided for the definition of coordinate systems used in specific counties in the U.S. states of Minnesota and Wisconsin. Within a specific county in one of these states, the ellipsoid must be expanded by an additional amount to account for the average elevation within that county. In the case of a Wisconsin county, the ellipsoid must also be adjusted based on the average geoid height for that county. For Minnesota counties, the average geoid height should be set to zero.
Parameters:
Minnesota 

average_elevation 
Average elevation (Minnesota and Wisconsin) 

average_geoid_height 
Average geoid height (Wisconsinonly) 
0 
central_meridian 
Longitude of origin 

false_easting 
False easting 

false_northing 
False northing 

latitude_of_origin 
Latitude of origin of the projection 

scale_factor 
Scale reduction factor at the centre of the projection 

standard_parallel1 
Latitude of southern standard parallel 

standard_parallel2 
Latitude of northern standard parallel 

Usage:
County maps of Minnesota and Wisconsin.
LAMBERT 27
Important Notes:
NOT FOR CARTOGRAPHIC USE. Use only to import legacy data that might have been saved in this system and then transform to a new coordinate system
Information:
The Lambert State Plane 27 is part of the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS). See Guam27 for more information.
The Lambert 27 projection does not require any parameters.
PERSPECTIVE CONIC
The Perspective Conic projection is produced by projecting the Earth perspectively from the centre (or from some other point) onto a tangent or secant cone, along the standard parallels. The meridians are equally spaced straight lines converging at a common point representing one of the poles. The parallels are represented as unequally spaced concentric circular arcs centered on the pole of convergence of the meridians. The other pole may not be represented on the projection, though in some cases it may appear as a circular arc.
Parameters:
central_meridian 
Longitude of the central meridian 
false_easting 
False easting 
false_northing 
False northing 
latitude_of_origin 
Latitude of origin of the projection 
standard_parallel1 
Latitude of southern standard parallel 
standard_parallel2 
Latitude of northern standard parallel 
Usage:
Aesthetical maps of Earth.
Notes:
Should not be used on nonhemispherical area — requires crop before transforming. Quick distorsions appear away from standard latitudes and central meridians. Only a spherical form is supported (using semimajor axis of ellipsoid)
POLYCONIC
The Polyconic projection is neither an equalarea nor a conformal projection. Scale is true along each parallel and along the central meridian. Parallels of latitude are arcs of nonconcentric circles and the projection is free of distortion only along the central meridian.
Parameters:
central_meridian 
Longitude of the centre of the projection 
false_easting 
False easting 
false_northing 
False northing 
latitude_of_origin 
Latitude of origin of the projection 
Usage:
This projection can be used to represent small areas on any part of the globe, preserving shapes, areas, distances, and azimuths in their true relation to the surface of the earth. Polyconic projections over large areas usually result in serious errors and exaggeration of details. Used in USGS 7.5 and 15 minutes quad sheets.
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